africa

Leica Photography In The Tropics — Then and Now

This is a camera geeking post!

After introduction in mid 1920’s, Leica photography became synonym for more agile and reactive way of taking photographs. It made possible to use a camera in situations and locations that hadn’t been considered with earlier equipment. Bit like iPhone of its day, Leica camera defined a before-and-after point in photographic world. Lets travel back to 1937 and take Leica into a jungle! Quotes bellow are from book The Leica Manual, Willard D. Morgan, 1937.

Kilimanjaro national park, Tanzania.

“Several years of photographic work under difficult tropical conditions … a 600-mile trek across the Central African Highlands in the middle of the rainy season . . . 400 miles by dugout canoe in the humid swamplands of southern New Guinea . . , and the highly variable conditions encountered in the uplands of Fiji and the Solomon Islands, have satisfied me of the singular advantages of the Leica camera, and the Leica method in general, for hot-country work.

One virtue which the Leica possesses is: It is the only camera I know of that when in use is sufficiently sealed to guard the film inside from moisture. Practically no humidity, I find, penetrates the closed camera. If the film has been cared for properly before and after use satisfactory results are certain. Nothing can happen to it while it is in use.”

Infrared photos taken with Leica M8. Victoria Falls at Zambian-Zimbabwean border. Iguazu Falls at Brazilian-Argentinean border.

“My own methods of caring for film under tropical conditions methods which have proven completely successful are these.

I purchase all the film I need before leaving home. Even the less durable grades of super-speed pan will, I know from experience, last at least a year, if one takes care. And, so far as the tropics are concerned, I distrust the mails.

Some travelers order film to be sent out to them at various stages of their voyaging. The idea seems reasonable. Fresh film, straight from the factory, it should be fine. It is, unless it happens on the way to have had a long trip through tropical waters in the mail room of an average steamer. I have been in those mail rooms. They are usually amidships near the engines; near the equator their normal temperature is often well above 120(F). And somewhere, in the midst of it, someone’s film is simmering. For the same reason I allow no cases containing film to be taken to the baggage room. They stay with me in the cabin.”

Irrawaddy, main waterway of Burma.

“Film should be carried in a steel African uniform box. Boxes made in England for use in Africa and well worth the high price one pays for them boxes guaranteed airtight and watertight. I have one which is large enough to hold, except for the cameras themselves, all of a rather extensive photographic equipment. It is roughly the size of an ordinary suitcase. And one should improve it in one particular which the makers overlooked. African uniform boxes are painted black when one gets them. Mine is now painted with a white enamel. When, as it often is, the box is being carried in the sunlight on the top of an African’s head or a South Sea Islander’s shoulders, the difference in the interior temperatures between a black box and a white one is decidedly perceptible. And very important.”

Leica Manual — A Manual For The Amateur And Professional Covering The Entire Field Of Leica Photography by Willard D. Morgan; Henry M. Lester. Source.

Mayan temple complex in Tikal, in the sea of Guatemalan jungle.

Khmer temples in Angkor Wat, Cambodia.

Taj Mahal, India.

50 years later, African uniform boxes and steamers had largely disappeared. But world of photography was still analog. Gunter Osterloh, Leica M Advanced Photo School gives few tips about problem fungus can cause to photographic equipment. Quote:

“Long visits to areas with a hot and humid climate expose the entire photographic outfit to the risk of fungus growth. Film, lenses, leather cases, all of them can be damaged by fungus. The more frequently we expose cameras, lenses, and accessories to fresh air, the lower the risk of fungus formation. Fungus growth is much more likely to occur when the equipment is not used very often.

Film react even more sensitively to a hot and humid tropical climate than cameras and lenses. Problems result from the absorption of humidity by the film, causing it to swell and to stick to the inside of its cartridge, for example, or to the take-up spool of the camera. The emulsion may then be torn from its support during the winding or rewinding operation, destroying any pictures that may have been taken on it. Bits of emulsion that remain behind (mostly in the vicinity of the pressure plate) will foster the growth of fungus.”

Leica M Advanced Photo School, latest edition is on Amazon.

My own experience echoes Osterloh. When living in Thailand I foolishly left my equipment into a closed bag for few months. After finally taken out, outer lens elements were already growing fungus, but it hadn’t penetrated inside yet. Watch out especially with expensive gear such as Leica’s!

Golden Triangle seen from Thai side, at the confluence of the Ruak River and the Mekong River. The location is border tripoint of Thailand (behind), Laos (right) and Burma (left).

Lets go forward 30 years to 2017. World has largely shifted from analog to digital (film is also experiencing a resurgence like vinyl records and tube radios). Photo can be shared instantly and without costs across the globe. Democratization of photography has progressed also further. Where there was perhaps one Mr. Morgan to hundred thousand who didn’t own any camera, and one Mr. Osterloh to ten thousand the same. Today, thanks to phone cameras, figures are opposite.

What else to consider today, if heading somewhere warm and humid? Past several years I’ve been lugging my Leica and other cameras into tropical countries in Africa, South Asia and America. Couple points to take into account:

– Obviously our dependency on electronics has become a norm. Batteries for the camera and other equipment, and needed accessories (chargers, adapters) all add weight to the backpack. Same goes with storage and backups. Connectivity with the rest of the world. Editing and sharing work on the go.

– Electronic dry boxes are nowadays affordable and a cheap insurance against the fungal growth. The device contains a small cooler, which removes moisture from the air by condensing it out. Consider them if you live in tropics for longer periods of time. Silica gel bags are alternative for those who have to change location frequently.

Sunset at Vinales, Cuba and Vang Vieng, Laos.

– Digital sensor is more vulnerable to dust than film. Sooner or later spots start to appear on your photos even if you are careful when and where changing lenses. For a long trip, sensor cleaning solution is must have backup, least for me.

– Developing countries often have shoddy power grids. Leaving a gadget plugged in for long periods risk it to power spikes that can fry delicate electronics. Cameras that can share same batteries reduce need for constant charging. Wall chargers disconnect the device from direct connection with grid.

Then and now, many things are different but some similarities also do exist. Leica’s still a specialist tool and costs a fortune!

Further reading: Article by The New Yorker from 2007.

Tazara

Tazara stands for Tanzanian-Zambian Railways, originally this 1800 km track was built by Chinese in 1970’s. Socialist camp African countries had minerals available for trade, but no other way to get them delivered to world. Chinese words come by everywhere, buildings, machines. But it’s very different world now, than time of Mao’s labor brigades that built Tazara!

Journey started horribly late behind schedule, about 12 hours! For a moment we thought there was riot breaking out at the station, fully packed with exhausted, tired people. Tired of hours waiting and sitting on floors. Outside our room, passengers began shouting and protesting constant postpone notices, banging the iron fence to platforms. Delays are common and perhaps because of political disagreements behind jointly owned and operated railway company of Tanzanians and Zambians. Finally train rolled to platform, loaded fast and journey started.

After got going, and trip has been progressing without surprises. Track is jumpy at parts and we’re stopping often on small village stations. On stops people rush to it from their huts, goods are loaded in and out, some leave, some hop aboard. Tazara is a perfect way to enjoy views of African countryside, relax, read or chat with fellow passengers.

Zambian border was a bit of surprise, since Visa must be bought on Dollars which I had none. Money exchange guys followed the immigration persons, so got my Dollars but what a rate!

After full day progressing under merciless African sun, view of brown and yellow savannas start to fade into dusk. Its time to go back sleep let train continue journey through the night.

All in all, an awesome experience! Too bad railways aren’t more common in Africa, what a great way to explore this vast continent.

@ Tazara train from Dar es Salaam to Capiri Mposhi, Oct 2010.

Swakopmunde and Pondicherry

Swakopmunde is in Namibian coast, South West Africa. Pondicherry East coast of India. They have very little else in common, but what history had reserved for them after high hopes in the beginning.

October 2010 — Swakopmunde is similar low profile small town with neighboring Valves Bay, 30 mins drive North. Came this morning in a shuttle bus, and have walked through the city attractions now around 2pm. Town tries to balance on a thin line between desert and ocean. Beach is nice, and South Atlantic waves are magnificent. Sun is merciless, winds strong and water cool. German language comes across everywhere such as street and building names, as well as German tourists who probably feel homey here. Early 1900’s posters about steamer connections to Hamburg adds nice touch. Atmosphere is sleepy, waiting.

Had a long chat yesterday in Walvis with a young rapper calling himself Smooth James, I met when walking and admiring flamingos of Walvis Bay Lagoon. This light voiced, 20 year old kind looking Namibian boy dreams about career as singer in USA, has made few songs (got copy of his CD) and tries to make his way in local sing contests and auditions. Only advice I could give to the boy was try also to get an education, despite his bigger ambitions. Don’t know how feasible my advice was e.g. money wise, but least it wasn’t rejected out right. Maybe just politely ignored. @ Swakopmunde

February 2012 — Since Madurai, been traveling ten days in South India. My train took me to Chennai, former Madras and British starting point of colonizing India since 1700’s. After few days in Chennai, jumped to bus back South. I wanted to see some more of Bengal coast history and cultural places. So I arrived today to Pondicherry, small town and former colonial outpost. Its architecture and feel immediately reminded the visit to Swakopmunde in Namibia coast.

This was not German but French, but similarities were striking, long strait coast and towns oldest buildings built right on edge of sea. Kind of outpost, where to load the boats from Europe: soldiers, equipment, goods. Many Indians still speak French, after all this time. Pondicherry’s destiny was similar to Swakopmunde’s. It eventually got occupied by British in the wars between the European powers, and then reduced to secondary status since they already had main port (taken earlier and from better place) in the region. @ Pondicherry