angkor

Trees Of Angkor

By the early 15th century, once mighty Khmer empire was in tatters. In previous centuries it had occupied and vassalised most of Southeast Asia, providing funds for its grandiose building projects. But now Angkor’s irrigation system wasn’t able to provide for agriculture to feed the population, and external enemies sensing their time to come, completed the humiliation in battlefield. Other contributing factors to decline has also been speculated, such as climatic changes, Black Death, and religious schism’s weakening the state internally.


In Ta Phrom.

Large body of population abandoned Angkor in year 1431, once it was considered indefensible against repeated attacks by Siamese Ayutthaya kingdom. Population moved further east to current Phnom Penh region, but some evidence shows also parallel Khmer kingdom’s existing at times in both.


In Ta Phrom.


In Preah Khan.

At its hight, Angkor is estimated of being city of million citizens, largest in the world at that time. However most buildings were made from wood, and had little chance of survival when times got tough. What was still standing after wars, was quickly swallowed by the jungle. Only the largest stone temples had any chance of survival in coming centuries. To witness what massive silk-cotton trees and strangler figs an do over time, Ta Phrom temple has been spared precisely for this purpose. Other temples such as Preah Khan also have them growing on the walls and roofs, slowly but surely twisting, bending and breaking the architecture.


In Preah Khan.


Temple inner yard in Ta Phrom.


Angkor Wat is the largest single temple complex of Angkor.

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Photo Tour — Bangkok National Museum

Touring museums is one favorite pastime of mine, and while am not usually photograph much in them, art pieces of Bangkok National Museum made me make an exception. Museum exhibits lot of religious art pieces through the ages of the nation, and is curated well to inform visitor about specifics of different era’s.


Dvaravati era wheel and statues of Hindu gods from 6th to 11th century.


Buddhism entered Thailand and Southeast Asia replacing the then prevalent Hinduism around 10th century and after.


Statue from Srivijaya period 8th to 13th century.


Famous Sukhothai stone. The Ram Khamhaeng Inscription, formally known as Sukhothai Inscription No. 1, is a stone bearing inscriptions that is regarded as the earliest example of the Thai script.


Sukhothai is considered earliest Thai kingdom, that existed in 14th and 15th century, during the time when Khmer’s (Cambodia) were the dominant power in Southeast Asia.


Buddha statue from Sukhothai period.


Statues of Hindu god in Bangkok National Museum.


Bangkok National Museum spans to several buildings, besides the main art exhibition hall. These large carriages were used in Royal occasions to demonstrate the might of Thai ruler, and museum exhibits several of them in different sizes.


Warfare in Southeast Asia, before combustion engine. War elephants were the all-mighty, albeit unpredictable, force in the war. And more of them meant better chances of victory.


Real size replica of war elephant.


Masks used in traditional Thai dance performances.


Traditional Buddhist temple in Bangkok National Museum.

Burma West — Arakan Coast and Bay of Bengal

Traveling in western Myanmar spring 2019: Mandalay, Mrauk-U, Sittwe, Pathein and Ngwesaung.

Brief history. For centuries, current day western Burma was an independent Arakanese kingdom, situated in coastal strip at the Bay of Bengal. It was only in 1784 when Burmese conquered the region and annexed it as part of their kingdom. This occupation would last only 40 years, until First Anglo-Burmese War, end result of which was British occupation. Later in century the rest of Burma would suffer same fate as British were expanding their Indian possessions. After independence in 1948, Arakan coast remained as part of Burma as Rakhine state. Today it is one of least developed parts of the country, due to long conflicts between Bamar majority and local ethnicities, namely Rohingya, Kachin and Arakanese.


Burma in 1900’s, left. British annexations in 3 stages marked. Trip to Burma covered by this post, on right.


Mandalay Palace and surrounding moat at center of city. Unfortunately largely wooden palace was burned down during Second World War bombing raids, when Japanese were occupying the city.


U Bein bridge is popular tourist attraction, both local and foreigners alike.


Shopping in Mahamuni Paya.


Mahamuni Buddha image was brought from Arakan to then Burmese capital Amarapura (outskirts of present day Mandalay), along with other war loot (see bellow).


These unassuming bronze statues in Mahamuni Paya in Mandalay have fascinating history to tell. They were originally made by the Khmer’s at height of their power for Angkor Wat temple. By early 1400’s Khmer empire was in decline, and final blow to their former prestige came in 1431, when Siamese (Thai), laid a siege on Khmer capital and managed to conquer it. Along with them as war loot, left the bronze statues west to Siamese capital Ayutthaya. Siamese in turn were defeated in 1563-4 by great Burmese king Bayinnaung, who ransacked Siamese capital. Bayinnaung had Khmer bronze statues moved to his capital Bago (Pegu). Then in 1599, statues were on the move again further west to Mrauk-U, when Arakanese (Rakhine) king Min Razagyi, with help of Portugese mercenaries sacked Bago. Interestingly, there’s another version of events in the plague next to statues in Mahamuni Paya: “…when the Thai King Byanarit attacked Toungoo in 1599, the Rakhine king fought from the Myanmar side. In that was, the Thai king was defeated. As he owed a debt of gratitude to the Rakhine king, the king of Toungoo (Burma) presented the Rakhine king with various treasures including the large Bronze Figures”. Thai King Byanarit is likely the King Naresuan of Ayutthaya, who was with his forces in the region in 1600, had skirmishes with Arakanese, and had eventually to withdraw. And so statues are now in Arakanese capital Mrauk-U for almost next 200 years. In 1784, Burmese king Bodawpaya sent armies led by his son and crown prince Thado Minsaw, to end the existence of Arakanese kingdom. War ended in defeat for Arakanese, and Mrauk-U was systematically looted. Back into Burmese capital Amarapura went the famous Mahamuni Buddha image (see above). Likewise, the Khmer bronze statues made voyage now to eastwards, to the same temple. It is believed that there were originally around 30 statues that were moved from kingdom to kingdom, but last of Burmese kings, Thibaw, was in desperate need for arms when British were annexing Burma piece by piece. Most of statues were melted and cast as canons, and only 6 remains today. Bronze cannons of Khmer origin did little to help Thibaw though. After British reached Mandalay in 1885, they sent him to exile in India and so ended Burmese royal dynasty with him.


Kipling Cafe near Mandalay Palace. Famous 19th century British poet was born in India and lived there his youth. During and aftermath of Third Anglo-Burmese War, Rudyard Kipling was a reporter in Punjab and closely followed events as British and Indian troops were trying to pacify newly occupied lands. Telegrams kept coming about the casualties, as Burmese had resorted to bitter guerrilla warfare to fight occupiers, land was lawless and banditry epidemic. Eventually 14000 troops managed to quell the armed opposition. After Kipling left India to move Europe, he visited Rangoon (Yangon) and Moulmein (Mawlamyine), but never came to Mandalay. Great source of information about Kipling in India and Burma, link.

By the old Moulmein Pagoda, lookin’ eastward to the sea,
There’s a Burma girl a-settin’, and I know she thinks o’ me;
For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple-bells they say:
“Come you back, you British soldier; come you back to Mandalay!” …


Let’s go west. Mandalay alone would warrant entire blog post, here’s where the trip actually starts!

I started my trip to west from Mandalay, by taking a bus to Mrauk-U. Trip was long bus drive at night in roads that were in poor condition. Large parts of road were either not paved at all or only narrow strip that would fit only one vehicle. After arriving next morning, felt like a coma patient and rest of the day went recuperating.


Pagodas in Mrauk-U.

Due to reasons described above, Mrauk-U remains less touristy than better known Bagan. Saw perhaps two other tourists, and oftentimes region is off limits for tourists entirely. At night our bus passed a checkpoint and my passport was checked by military, but luckily this time they let us pass. Compared to Bagan, Mrauk-U is more hilly and silhouettes of pagodas provide nice photo opportunities, especially at dawn and dusk.


Remains of royal palace in Mrauk-U. It was built originally 1430, and improved significantly in 1531. Palace complex had several buildings such as parliament offices, armories etc. Mrauk-U dynasty lasted 354 years with 49 kings.

Visit to Chin tribe. Besides historic sights, nearby Chin villages offer fascinating glimpse how locals are living in their communities.


Portraits of Chin women in their 60’s and 70’s. Old tradition was to tattoo all young girls bellow age 10, with tribal identification. This was to prevent them marrying men from other tribes.


Young man preparing to start an engine.


Although brand new cell tower brings Internet to village, water is still transported in traditional way.


New housing is communal effort.


Mrauk-U boat jetty. Long boat is doing daily trips to Sittwe.

To the coast. Boat from Mrauk-U to Sittwe left around 7.30 in the morning, and arrived noonish. Views from boat were nice, as we progressed the delta. Sittwe is in confluence of the Kaladan, Mayu, and Lay Mro rivers emptying into the Bay of Bengal.


Sittwe is capital of Rakhine state. Its ideal starting point to begin exploring Arakan region, as daily flights connect it to Yangon.


Pathein pagoda at morning mist.

Pathein is further south from Sittwe, westwards from Yangon from where bus takes about 4 hours. Although most tourists bypass Pathein, on their way to coast, I decided to stop for few nights, and have a look the life in the city. Town has lively river front where one can observe life in Burmese provincial town.


Morning mist in Pathein.


Ngwesaung beaches are mostly frequented by Burmese locals, but some foreigners have found them too.


Beach scenes from Ngwesaung.


Sunset in Sittwe beach.

Leica Photography In The Tropics — Then and Now

This is a camera geeking post!

After introduction in mid 1920’s, Leica photography became synonym for more agile and reactive way of taking photographs. It made possible to use a camera in situations and locations that hadn’t been considered with earlier equipment. Bit like iPhone of its day, Leica camera defined a before-and-after point in photographic world. Lets travel back to 1937 and take Leica into a jungle! Quotes bellow are from book The Leica Manual, Willard D. Morgan, 1937.

Kilimanjaro national park, Tanzania.

“Several years of photographic work under difficult tropical conditions … a 600-mile trek across the Central African Highlands in the middle of the rainy season . . . 400 miles by dugout canoe in the humid swamplands of southern New Guinea . . , and the highly variable conditions encountered in the uplands of Fiji and the Solomon Islands, have satisfied me of the singular advantages of the Leica camera, and the Leica method in general, for hot-country work.

One virtue which the Leica possesses is: It is the only camera I know of that when in use is sufficiently sealed to guard the film inside from moisture. Practically no humidity, I find, penetrates the closed camera. If the film has been cared for properly before and after use satisfactory results are certain. Nothing can happen to it while it is in use.”

Infrared photos taken with Leica M8. Victoria Falls at Zambian-Zimbabwean border. Iguazu Falls at Brazilian-Argentinean border.

“My own methods of caring for film under tropical conditions methods which have proven completely successful are these.

I purchase all the film I need before leaving home. Even the less durable grades of super-speed pan will, I know from experience, last at least a year, if one takes care. And, so far as the tropics are concerned, I distrust the mails.

Some travelers order film to be sent out to them at various stages of their voyaging. The idea seems reasonable. Fresh film, straight from the factory, it should be fine. It is, unless it happens on the way to have had a long trip through tropical waters in the mail room of an average steamer. I have been in those mail rooms. They are usually amidships near the engines; near the equator their normal temperature is often well above 120(F). And somewhere, in the midst of it, someone’s film is simmering. For the same reason I allow no cases containing film to be taken to the baggage room. They stay with me in the cabin.”

Irrawaddy, main waterway of Burma.

“Film should be carried in a steel African uniform box. Boxes made in England for use in Africa and well worth the high price one pays for them boxes guaranteed airtight and watertight. I have one which is large enough to hold, except for the cameras themselves, all of a rather extensive photographic equipment. It is roughly the size of an ordinary suitcase. And one should improve it in one particular which the makers overlooked. African uniform boxes are painted black when one gets them. Mine is now painted with a white enamel. When, as it often is, the box is being carried in the sunlight on the top of an African’s head or a South Sea Islander’s shoulders, the difference in the interior temperatures between a black box and a white one is decidedly perceptible. And very important.”

Leica Manual — A Manual For The Amateur And Professional Covering The Entire Field Of Leica Photography by Willard D. Morgan; Henry M. Lester. Source.

Mayan temple complex in Tikal, in the sea of Guatemalan jungle.

Khmer temples in Angkor Wat, Cambodia.

Taj Mahal, India.

50 years later, African uniform boxes and steamers had largely disappeared. But world of photography was still analog. Gunter Osterloh, Leica M Advanced Photo School gives few tips about problem fungus can cause to photographic equipment. Quote:

“Long visits to areas with a hot and humid climate expose the entire photographic outfit to the risk of fungus growth. Film, lenses, leather cases, all of them can be damaged by fungus. The more frequently we expose cameras, lenses, and accessories to fresh air, the lower the risk of fungus formation. Fungus growth is much more likely to occur when the equipment is not used very often.

Film react even more sensitively to a hot and humid tropical climate than cameras and lenses. Problems result from the absorption of humidity by the film, causing it to swell and to stick to the inside of its cartridge, for example, or to the take-up spool of the camera. The emulsion may then be torn from its support during the winding or rewinding operation, destroying any pictures that may have been taken on it. Bits of emulsion that remain behind (mostly in the vicinity of the pressure plate) will foster the growth of fungus.”

Leica M Advanced Photo School, latest edition is on Amazon.

My own experience echoes Osterloh. When living in Thailand I foolishly left my equipment into a closed bag for few months. After finally taken out, outer lens elements were already growing fungus, but it hadn’t penetrated inside yet. Watch out especially with expensive gear such as Leica’s!

Golden Triangle seen from Thai side, at the confluence of the Ruak River and the Mekong River. The location is border tripoint of Thailand (behind), Laos (right) and Burma (left).

Lets go forward 30 years to 2017. World has largely shifted from analog to digital (film is also experiencing a resurgence like vinyl records and tube radios). Photo can be shared instantly and without costs across the globe. Democratization of photography has progressed also further. Where there was perhaps one Mr. Morgan to hundred thousand who didn’t own any camera, and one Mr. Osterloh to ten thousand the same. Today, thanks to phone cameras, figures are opposite.

What else to consider today, if heading somewhere warm and humid? Past several years I’ve been lugging my Leica and other cameras into tropical countries in Africa, South Asia and America. Couple points to take into account:

– Obviously our dependency on electronics has become a norm. Batteries for the camera and other equipment, and needed accessories (chargers, adapters) all add weight to the backpack. Same goes with storage and backups. Connectivity with the rest of the world. Editing and sharing work on the go.

– Electronic dry boxes are nowadays affordable and a cheap insurance against the fungal growth. The device contains a small cooler, which removes moisture from the air by condensing it out. Consider them if you live in tropics for longer periods of time. Silica gel bags are alternative for those who have to change location frequently.

Sunset at Vinales, Cuba and Vang Vieng, Laos.

– Digital sensor is more vulnerable to dust than film. Sooner or later spots start to appear on your photos even if you are careful when and where changing lenses. For a long trip, sensor cleaning solution is must have backup, least for me.

– Developing countries often have shoddy power grids. Leaving a gadget plugged in for long periods risk it to power spikes that can fry delicate electronics. Cameras that can share same batteries reduce need for constant charging. Wall chargers disconnect the device from direct connection with grid.

Then and now, many things are different but some similarities also do exist. Leica’s still a specialist tool and costs a fortune!

Further reading: Article by The New Yorker from 2007.