Traveling in western Myanmar spring 2019: Mandalay, Mrauk-U, Sittwe, Pathein and Ngwesaung.
Brief history. For centuries, current day western Burma was an independent Arakanese kingdom, situated in coastal strip at the Bay of Bengal. It was only in 1784 when Burmese conquered the region and annexed it as part of their kingdom. This occupation would last only 40 years, until First Anglo-Burmese War, end result of which was British occupation. Later in century the rest of Burma would suffer same fate as British were expanding their Indian possessions. After independence in 1948, Arakan coast remained as part of Burma as Rakhine state. Today it is one of least developed parts of the country, due to long conflicts between Bamar majority and local ethnicities, namely Rohingya, Kachin and Arakanese.
Burma in 1900’s, left. British annexations in 3 stages marked. Trip to Burma covered by this post, on right.
Mandalay Palace and surrounding moat at center of city. Unfortunately largely wooden palace was burned down during Second World War bombing raids, when Japanese were occupying the city.
U Bein bridge is popular tourist attraction, both local and foreigners alike.
Shopping in Mahamuni Paya.
Mahamuni Buddha image was brought from Arakan to then Burmese capital Amarapura (outskirts of present day Mandalay), along with other war loot (see bellow).
These unassuming bronze statues in Mahamuni Paya in Mandalay have fascinating history to tell. They were originally made by the Khmer’s at height of their power for Angkor Wat temple. By early 1400’s Khmer empire was in decline, and final blow to their former prestige came in 1431, when Siamese (Thai), laid a siege on Khmer capital and managed to conquer it. Along with them as war loot, left the bronze statues west to Siamese capital Ayutthaya. Siamese in turn were defeated in 1563-4 by great Burmese king Bayinnaung, who ransacked Siamese capital. Bayinnaung had Khmer bronze statues moved to his capital Bago (Pegu). Then in 1599, statues were on the move again further west to Mrauk-U, when Arakanese (Rakhine) king Min Razagyi, with help of Portugese mercenaries sacked Bago. Interestingly, there’s another version of events in the plague next to statues in Mahamuni Paya: “…when the Thai King Byanarit attacked Toungoo in 1599, the Rakhine king fought from the Myanmar side. In that was, the Thai king was defeated. As he owed a debt of gratitude to the Rakhine king, the king of Toungoo (Burma) presented the Rakhine king with various treasures including the large Bronze Figures”. Thai King Byanarit is likely the King Naresuan of Ayutthaya, who was with his forces in the region in 1600, had skirmishes with Arakanese, and had eventually to withdraw. And so statues are now in Arakanese capital Mrauk-U for almost next 200 years. In 1784, Burmese king Bodawpaya sent armies led by his son and crown prince Thado Minsaw, to end the existence of Arakanese kingdom. War ended in defeat for Arakanese, and Mrauk-U was systematically looted. Back into Burmese capital Amarapura went the famous Mahamuni Buddha image (see above). Likewise, the Khmer bronze statues made voyage now to eastwards, to the same temple. It is believed that there were originally around 30 statues that were moved from kingdom to kingdom, but last of Burmese kings, Thibaw, was in desperate need for arms when British were annexing Burma piece by piece. Most of statues were melted and cast as canons, and only 6 remains today. Bronze cannons of Khmer origin did little to help Thibaw though. After British reached Mandalay in 1885, they sent him to exile in India and so ended Burmese royal dynasty with him.
Kipling Cafe near Mandalay Palace. Famous 19th century British poet was born in India and lived there his youth. During and aftermath of Third Anglo-Burmese War, Rudyard Kipling was a reporter in Punjab and closely followed events as British and Indian troops were trying to pacify newly occupied lands. Telegrams kept coming about the casualties, as Burmese had resorted to bitter guerrilla warfare to fight occupiers, land was lawless and banditry epidemic. Eventually 14000 troops managed to quell the armed opposition. After Kipling left India to move Europe, he visited Rangoon (Yangon) and Moulmein (Mawlamyine), but never came to Mandalay. Great source of information about Kipling in India and Burma, link.
By the old Moulmein Pagoda, lookin’ eastward to the sea,
There’s a Burma girl a-settin’, and I know she thinks o’ me;
For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple-bells they say:
“Come you back, you British soldier; come you back to Mandalay!” …
Let’s go west. Mandalay alone would warrant entire blog post, here’s where the trip actually starts!
I started my trip to west from Mandalay, by taking a bus to Mrauk-U. Trip was long bus drive at night in roads that were in poor condition. Large parts of road were either not paved at all or only narrow strip that would fit only one vehicle. After arriving next morning, felt like a coma patient and rest of the day went recuperating.
Pagodas in Mrauk-U.
Due to reasons described above, Mrauk-U remains less touristy than better known Bagan. Saw perhaps two other tourists, and oftentimes region is off limits for tourists entirely. At night our bus passed a checkpoint and my passport was checked by military, but luckily this time they let us pass. Compared to Bagan, Mrauk-U is more hilly and silhouettes of pagodas provide nice photo opportunities, especially at dawn and dusk.
Remains of royal palace in Mrauk-U. It was built originally 1430, and improved significantly in 1531. Palace complex had several buildings such as parliament offices, armories etc. Mrauk-U dynasty lasted 354 years with 49 kings.
Visit to Chin tribe. Besides historic sights, nearby Chin villages offer fascinating glimpse how locals are living in their communities.
Portraits of Chin women in their 60’s and 70’s. Old tradition was to tattoo all young girls bellow age 10, with tribal identification. This was to prevent them marrying men from other tribes.
Young man preparing to start an engine.
Although brand new cell tower brings Internet to village, water is still transported in traditional way.
New housing is communal effort.
Mrauk-U boat jetty. Long boat is doing daily trips to Sittwe.
To the coast. Boat from Mrauk-U to Sittwe left around 7.30 in the morning, and arrived noonish. Views from boat were nice, as we progressed the delta. Sittwe is in confluence of the Kaladan, Mayu, and Lay Mro rivers emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
Sittwe is capital of Rakhine state. Its ideal starting point to begin exploring Arakan region, as daily flights connect it to Yangon.
Pathein pagoda at morning mist.
Pathein is further south from Sittwe, westwards from Yangon from where bus takes about 4 hours. Although most tourists bypass Pathein, on their way to coast, I decided to stop for few nights, and have a look the life in the city. Town has lively river front where one can observe life in Burmese provincial town.
Morning mist in Pathein.
Ngwesaung beaches are mostly frequented by Burmese locals, but some foreigners have found them too.
Beach scenes from Ngwesaung.
Sunset in Sittwe beach.